Research Article
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Insect Larval Meal as A Possible Alternative to Fish Meal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets: Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens), Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor)

Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 1, 43 - 52, 28.04.2023
https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.1081945

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the effect on growth performance and intestinal histomorphology of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets including black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae meal (HI) and mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae meal (TM) used instead of fish meal. Six diets with HI and TM at three inclusion levels (10%, 20% and 30%) and a control diet based on fish meal were prepared. Test diets were encoded as control, HI10, HI20, HI30, TM10, TM20 and TM30. Fish (average initial weight of 34.17±0.88 g) were randomly placed (30 for each) in 500 L fibreglass tanks. Each of the seven diet treatments was tested in triplicated tanks. Fish were fed by hand at a level of 2.5% of body weight three times a day for 90 days. Results demonstrated that the growth performance and intestinal histomorphology were significantly affected by black soldier fly (HI) prepupae meal substitution (p<0.05). HI prepupae meal used instead of the fish meal had a negative effect on the growth performance, but not on the intestinal villi length. In addition, intestinal villi width decreased in fish on diets containing 10% or 20% HI prepupae meal. The growth performance and intestinal histomorphology were significantly affected by diets including TM. The diets containing 20% and 30% TM meal significantly decreased growth performance variables, but intestinal villi length increased. The results suggest that mealworm meal (10%) can be included in diets of rainbow trout at a level of 10% instead of fish meal without adversely affecting growth performance. Future studies should be expanded using a highly defatted TM and HI larvae meals.

Supporting Institution

TAGEM

Thanks

This research was carried out within the project named “Effects on growth performance, fatty acid and amino acid composition of Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) and Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larva meal of fish meal substitute in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds

References

  • Belforti M, Gai F, Lussiana G, Renna M, Malfatto V, Rotolo L, De Marco M, Dabbou S, Schiavone A, Zoccarato I, Gasco L. 2015. Tenebrio Molitor Meal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets: Effects on Animal Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Chemical Composition of Fillets. Ital J Anim Sci. 14(4):669-676. doi: 10.4081/ijas.2015.4170
  • Cardinaletti G, Randazzo B, Messina M, Zarantoniello M, Giorgini E, Zimbelli A, Bruni L, Parisi G, Olivotto I, Tulli F. 2019. Effects of Graded Dietary Inclusion Level of Full-Fat Hermetia illucens Prepupae Meal in Practical Diets for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animals. 9(5):1-21. doi: 10.3390/ani9050251
  • Chemello G, Renna M, Caimi C, Guerreiro I, Oliva-Teles A, Enes P, Biasato I, Schiavone A, Gai F, Gasco L. 2020. Partially defatted Tenebrio molitor larva meal in diets for grow-out Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): Effects on growth performance, diet digestibility and metabolic responses. Animals. 10(2):1-15. doi: 10.3390/ani10020229
  • Dumas A, Raggi T, Barkhouse J, Lewis E, Weltzien E. 2018. The oil fraction and partially defatted meal of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) affect differently growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient deposition, blood glucose and lipid digestibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 492:24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.03.038
  • Helrich K. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edition. Arlington, Virginia, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc 1298 p.
  • Henry MA, Gai F, Enes P, Peréz-Jiménez A, Gasco L. 2018. Effect of partial dietary replacement of fishmeal by yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae meal on the innate immune response and intestinal antioxidant enzymes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immun. 83:308-313. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.09.040
  • Iaconisi V, Secci G, Sabatino G, Piccolo G, Gasco L, Papini AM, Parisi G. 2019. Effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) larvae meal on amino acid composition of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) fillets. Aquaculture. 513:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734403
  • Jia FT, Hing WN. 2017. Fish feed formulation using Black soldier fly pre-pupae from fruit waste. J Eng Appl Sci. 12(Special Issue 3):6393-6397.
  • Katya K, Borsra MZS, Ganesan D, Kuppusamy G, Herriman M, Salter A, Ali SA. 2017. Efficacy of insect larval meal to replace fish meal in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer reared in freshwater. Int Aquat Res. 9:303-312. doi: 10.1007/s40071-017-0178-x
  • Magalhaes R, Sánchez-López A, Leal RS, Martínez-Llorens S, Oliva-Telesa A, Peresa H. 2017. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae meal as a fish meal replacement in diets for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 476:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.04.021
  • Oswald RL. 1978. Injection anesthesia for experimental studies in fish. Comp Biochem Phys C. 60(1):19-26. doi: 10.1016/0306-4492(78)90021-7
  • Piccolo G, Iaconisi V, Marono S, Gasco L, Loponte R, Nizza S, Bovera F, Parisi G. 2017. Effect of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal on growth performance, in vivo nutrients digestibility, somatic and marketable indexes of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Anim Feed Sci Tech. 226:12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.007
  • Rimoldi S, Gini E, Iannini F, Gasco L, Terova G. 2019. The Effects of Dietary Insect Meal from Hermetia illucens Prepupae on Autochthonous Gut Microbiota of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animals. 9(4):1-17. doi: 10.3390/ani9040143
  • Roncarati A, Gasco L, Parisi G, Terova G. 2015. Growth performance of common catfish (Ameiurus melas Raf.) fingerlings fed mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) diet. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 1(3): 233-240. doi: 10.3920/JIFF2014.0006
  • Secci G, Mancini S, Iaconisi V, Gasco L, Basto A, Parisi G. 2019. Can the inclusion of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) in diet affect the flesh quality/nutritional traits of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after freezing and cooking? Int J Food Sci Nutr. 70(2):161-171. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2018.1489529
  • Stadtlander T, Stamer A, Buser A, Wohlfahrt J, Leiber F, Sandrock C. 2017. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 3(3):165-175. doi: 10.3920/JIFF2016.0056
  • Stamer A, Wesselss S, Neidigk R, Hoerstgen-Schwarl G. 2014. Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae-meal as an example for a new feed ingredients’ class in aquaculture diets. Paper presented at: 4 th ISOFAR Scientific Conference. ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress; Istanbul, Türkiye.
  • Su J, Gong Y, Cao S, Lu F, Han D, Liu H, Jin J, Yang Y, Zhu X, Xie S. 2017. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Fish Shellfish Immun. 69:59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2017.08.008
  • Terova G, Gini E, Gasco L, Moroni F, Antonini M, Rimoldi S. 2021. Effects of full replacement of dietary fishmeal with insect meal from Tenebrio molitor on rainbow trout gut and skin microbiota. J Anim Sci Biotechno. 12:1-14. doi: 10.1186/s40104-021-00551-9
  • Xu X, Ji H, Yu H, Zhou J. 2020. Influence of dietary black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus) pulp on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and intestinal health of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis). Aquacult Nutr. 26(2):432-443. doi: 10.1111/anu.13005
  • Zadeh ZS, Kheiri F, Faghani M. 2019. Use of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) as a protein source on growthperformance, carcass traits, meat quality and intestinal morphology of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Veterinary and Animal Science. 8:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vas.2019.100066
Year 2023, Volume: 9 Issue: 1, 43 - 52, 28.04.2023
https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.1081945

Abstract

References

  • Belforti M, Gai F, Lussiana G, Renna M, Malfatto V, Rotolo L, De Marco M, Dabbou S, Schiavone A, Zoccarato I, Gasco L. 2015. Tenebrio Molitor Meal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets: Effects on Animal Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Chemical Composition of Fillets. Ital J Anim Sci. 14(4):669-676. doi: 10.4081/ijas.2015.4170
  • Cardinaletti G, Randazzo B, Messina M, Zarantoniello M, Giorgini E, Zimbelli A, Bruni L, Parisi G, Olivotto I, Tulli F. 2019. Effects of Graded Dietary Inclusion Level of Full-Fat Hermetia illucens Prepupae Meal in Practical Diets for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animals. 9(5):1-21. doi: 10.3390/ani9050251
  • Chemello G, Renna M, Caimi C, Guerreiro I, Oliva-Teles A, Enes P, Biasato I, Schiavone A, Gai F, Gasco L. 2020. Partially defatted Tenebrio molitor larva meal in diets for grow-out Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): Effects on growth performance, diet digestibility and metabolic responses. Animals. 10(2):1-15. doi: 10.3390/ani10020229
  • Dumas A, Raggi T, Barkhouse J, Lewis E, Weltzien E. 2018. The oil fraction and partially defatted meal of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) affect differently growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient deposition, blood glucose and lipid digestibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 492:24-34. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.03.038
  • Helrich K. 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edition. Arlington, Virginia, USA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc 1298 p.
  • Henry MA, Gai F, Enes P, Peréz-Jiménez A, Gasco L. 2018. Effect of partial dietary replacement of fishmeal by yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) larvae meal on the innate immune response and intestinal antioxidant enzymes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish Shellfish Immun. 83:308-313. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2018.09.040
  • Iaconisi V, Secci G, Sabatino G, Piccolo G, Gasco L, Papini AM, Parisi G. 2019. Effect of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) larvae meal on amino acid composition of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) fillets. Aquaculture. 513:1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.734403
  • Jia FT, Hing WN. 2017. Fish feed formulation using Black soldier fly pre-pupae from fruit waste. J Eng Appl Sci. 12(Special Issue 3):6393-6397.
  • Katya K, Borsra MZS, Ganesan D, Kuppusamy G, Herriman M, Salter A, Ali SA. 2017. Efficacy of insect larval meal to replace fish meal in juvenile barramundi, Lates calcarifer reared in freshwater. Int Aquat Res. 9:303-312. doi: 10.1007/s40071-017-0178-x
  • Magalhaes R, Sánchez-López A, Leal RS, Martínez-Llorens S, Oliva-Telesa A, Peresa H. 2017. Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) pre-pupae meal as a fish meal replacement in diets for European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 476:79-85. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.04.021
  • Oswald RL. 1978. Injection anesthesia for experimental studies in fish. Comp Biochem Phys C. 60(1):19-26. doi: 10.1016/0306-4492(78)90021-7
  • Piccolo G, Iaconisi V, Marono S, Gasco L, Loponte R, Nizza S, Bovera F, Parisi G. 2017. Effect of Tenebrio molitor larvae meal on growth performance, in vivo nutrients digestibility, somatic and marketable indexes of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Anim Feed Sci Tech. 226:12-20. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2017.02.007
  • Rimoldi S, Gini E, Iannini F, Gasco L, Terova G. 2019. The Effects of Dietary Insect Meal from Hermetia illucens Prepupae on Autochthonous Gut Microbiota of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animals. 9(4):1-17. doi: 10.3390/ani9040143
  • Roncarati A, Gasco L, Parisi G, Terova G. 2015. Growth performance of common catfish (Ameiurus melas Raf.) fingerlings fed mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) diet. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 1(3): 233-240. doi: 10.3920/JIFF2014.0006
  • Secci G, Mancini S, Iaconisi V, Gasco L, Basto A, Parisi G. 2019. Can the inclusion of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) in diet affect the flesh quality/nutritional traits of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after freezing and cooking? Int J Food Sci Nutr. 70(2):161-171. doi: 10.1080/09637486.2018.1489529
  • Stadtlander T, Stamer A, Buser A, Wohlfahrt J, Leiber F, Sandrock C. 2017. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed. 3(3):165-175. doi: 10.3920/JIFF2016.0056
  • Stamer A, Wesselss S, Neidigk R, Hoerstgen-Schwarl G. 2014. Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae-meal as an example for a new feed ingredients’ class in aquaculture diets. Paper presented at: 4 th ISOFAR Scientific Conference. ‘Building Organic Bridges’, at the Organic World Congress; Istanbul, Türkiye.
  • Su J, Gong Y, Cao S, Lu F, Han D, Liu H, Jin J, Yang Y, Zhu X, Xie S. 2017. Effects of dietary Tenebrio molitor meal on the growth performance, immune response and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco). Fish Shellfish Immun. 69:59-66. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2017.08.008
  • Terova G, Gini E, Gasco L, Moroni F, Antonini M, Rimoldi S. 2021. Effects of full replacement of dietary fishmeal with insect meal from Tenebrio molitor on rainbow trout gut and skin microbiota. J Anim Sci Biotechno. 12:1-14. doi: 10.1186/s40104-021-00551-9
  • Xu X, Ji H, Yu H, Zhou J. 2020. Influence of dietary black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus) pulp on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and intestinal health of juvenile mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio var. specularis). Aquacult Nutr. 26(2):432-443. doi: 10.1111/anu.13005
  • Zadeh ZS, Kheiri F, Faghani M. 2019. Use of yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) as a protein source on growthperformance, carcass traits, meat quality and intestinal morphology of Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). Veterinary and Animal Science. 8:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vas.2019.100066

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Limnology
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Ali Atilla USLU 0000-0002-9157-4397

Osman Tolga ÖZEL 0000-0002-5414-6975

Gürel ÖRNEKÇİ 0000-0003-2378-2941

Burcu ÇELİK 0000-0002-6911-7907

Ekrem Cem ÇANKIRILIGİL 0000-0001-5898-4469

İsa COŞKUN 0000-0001-5495-6006

Gülşad USLU ŞENEL 0000-0002-5304-9436

Project Number TAGEM/HAYSÜD/2020/A11/P-01
Early Pub Date April 27, 2023
Publication Date April 28, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 9 Issue: 1

Cite

APA USLU, A. A., ÖZEL, O. T., ÖRNEKÇİ, G., ÇELİK, B., et al. (2023). Insect Larval Meal as A Possible Alternative to Fish Meal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets: Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens), Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, 9(1), 43-52. https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.1081945