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Sentetik Apo-ester ve Kadife Çiçeğinin (Tagetes erecta) Sarı Prenses Balığının (Labidochromis caeruleus) Pigmentasyonunda Karotenoyit Kaynağı Olarak Kullanılması

Year 2022, Volume: 8 Issue: 3, 289 - 296, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.1018012

Abstract

Bu çalışma, %4 kadife çiçeği (Tagetes erecta), 0 ve 100 mg/kg sentetik apo-ester içeren diyetlerle 60 gün beslenen sarı prenses balığının (Labidochromis caeruleus) deri rengi ve yetiştiricilik parametreleri üzerindeki etkilerini belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deri rengi, kolorimetrik yöntemle bir yansıtma spektroskopisi kullanılarak ölçülmüştür. Kadife çiçeği ve sentetik apo-esterin balıkların renk parametreleri (L*,a*,b*,Ch, H°ab) üzerindeki etkilerinin benzer olduğu belirlenmiştir (p>0,05). Her iki karotenoyit kaynağı, karotenoyit içermeyen diyete kıyasla balıklarda daha yüksek bir sarılık (+b*) değeri sağlamış (p<0,05), ancak açıklık (+L*) ve kırmızılık (+a*) değerlerini etkilememiştir (p>0,05). Diğer yandan, karotenoyit kaynaklarının balıkların büyüme performansı, yem değerlendirme ve hayatta kalma oranı üzerinde bir etkisi olmamıştır (p>0,05). Bu çalışma, kadife çiçeğinin sarı prenses balığı diyetlerinde sentetik apo estere alternatif bir doğal karotenoyit kaynağı olarak başarılı bir şekilde kullanılabileceğini göstermiştir.

Supporting Institution

Çukurova Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırmalar Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimi

Thanks

Bu çalışmaya FYL-2021-13450’nolu projeyle finansal destek sağlayan Çukurova Üniversitesi Bilimsel Araştırmalar Projeleri Koordinasyon Birimine teşekkür ederiz.

References

  • Abd El-Gawad EA, Wang HP, Yao H. 2019. Diet supplemented with synthetic carotenoids: Effects on growth performance and biochemical and immunological parameters of yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Front Physiol. 10: 1-13. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01056
  • Alma A, del Villar-Martinez, J, Orbe-Rogel EC, Vanegas-Espinoza P, Quintero-Gutierrez AG, Lara-Flores M. 2013. The effect of marigold (Tagetes erecta) as natural carotenoid source for the pigmentation of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Res J Fish Hydrobiol. 8(2), 31-37.
  • Amar EC, Kirona V, Satoha S, Watanabea T. 2004. Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 16, 527-537. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2003.09.004
  • Bell JG, McEvoy J, Tocher DR, Sargent JR. 2000. Depletion of α-tocopherol and astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects autoxidative defense and fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr. 130 (7), 1800-1808. doi: 10.1093/jn/130.7.1800.
  • Bjerkeng B, Johnsen G. 1995. Frozen storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as affected by oxygen, illumination, and fillet pigment. J Food Sci. 60 (2), 284-288. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb05656.x
  • Boonyaratpalin M, Unprasert N. 1989. Effects of pigment from different sources on colour and growth of red Oreochromis niloticus, Aquaculture, 79 (1-4), 375-380. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90479-1
  • Büyükçapar HM, Yanar M., Yanar Y. 2007. Pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Carotenoids from Marigold Flower (Tagetes erecta) and Red Pepper (Capsicum annum). Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 31(1), 7-12.
  • Chien YH, Jeng SC. 1992. Pigmentation of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicas, Bate, by various pigment sources and levels and feeding regimes. Aquaculture. 102: 333-346. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(92)90186-O
  • Christiansen R, Lee Ø, Torrissen OJ. 1994. Effect of astaxanthin and vitamin A on growth and survival during first feeding of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquac Res. 25 (9), 903-914. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.1994.tb01352.x
  • Christiansen R, Torrissen OJ. 1996. Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed different dietary levels of astaxanthin. Juveniles. Aquacult Nutr. 2 (1), 55-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.1996.tb00008.x
  • Choubert G, Storebakken T. 1989. Dose response to astaxanthin and canthaxanthin pigmentation of rainbow trout fed various dietary carotenoid concentration. Aquaculture. 81 (1), 69-77. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90231-7
  • Goodwin, TW. 1984. The Biochemistry of Carotenoids (2nd ed.), Chapman & Hall, London, s. 64-96.
  • Goswami UC. 1993. Metabolism of carotenoids in freshwater fish: (i) Biogenesis of 3-4 dehydroretinol (ii) supplementation of carotenoids with fish food for better survival and growth. 10th International Symposium of Carotenoids, Trondheim.
  • Guillou A, Choubert G, De La Noüe J. 1992. Absorption and blood clearance of labelled carotenoids ([14C] astaxanthin, [3H] cantaxanthin) and [3H] zeaxanthin) in mature female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol. A: physiology. 103 (2), 301-306. doi: 10.1016/0300-9629(92)90584-D
  • Göçer M, Yanar M, Kumlu M, Yanar Y. 2006. The effects of red pepper, marigold flower, and synthetic astaxanthin on pigmentation, growth, and proximate composition of Penaeus semisulcatus. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 30, 359-365.
  • Hata M, Hata M. 1973. Studies on astaxanthin formation in some fresh-water fishes, Tohoku j Agric Res. 24(4), 192-196.
  • Hunt, R. W. 1977. The specification of colour appearance. I. Concepts and terms. Color Research & Application, 2(2), 55-68. doi: 10.1002/col.5080020202
  • Jagadeesh TD, Murthy HS, Swain SH, Chethan N, Manjunatha AR, Baglodi V. 2014. Effect of marigold oleoresin on growth, survival and pigmentation in orange chromide, Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795). Fish Technol. 51, 25-30.
  • Jagadeesh TD, Murthy HS, Surendranath SV, Panikkar P, Manjappa N, Mahesh V. 2015. Effects of supplementation of marigold (Tagetes erecta) oleoresin on growth, survival and pigmentation of rosy barb, Puntius conchonius (Hamilton). The bioscan, 10 (3), 1431-1435.
  • Jha G.N, Sarma D, Qureshi TA. 2012. Effect of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) and marigold (Tagetes erecta) fortified diets on growth, body composition and total carotenoid content of Barilius bendelisis. Indian J Anim Sci. 82 (3), 336–340.
  • Liu F, Qu YK, Wang AM, Yu YB, Yang WP, Lv F, Nie Q. 2019. Effects of carotenoids on the growth performance, biochemical parameters, immune responses and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) under high-temperature stress, Aquaculture. 503, 293-303. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.01.008
  • Maleknejad R, Sudagar M, Mazandarani M, Hosseini SA. 2014. Effect of different live foods source (Culex larvae, Chironomus larvae and artemia) on pigmentation of electric yellow fish (Labidochromis Caeruleus), Int J Adv Biol Biom Res, 2 (4), 1287-1295.
  • Nakano T, Tosa M, Takeuchi M, 1995. Improvement of biochemical features in fish health by red yeast and synthetic astaxanthin. J.Agric. Food Chem. 43, 1570-1573.
  • Nakano T, Kanmuri T, Sato M, Takeuchi M, 1999. Effect of astaxanthin rich red yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) on oxidative stress in rainbow trout. Biochim Biophy Acta. 1426 (1), 119-125. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4165(98)00145-7
  • Negre-Sandargues G, Castillo R, Petit H, Sancé S, Martines RG, Milicua, JCG, Choubert G, Trilles, JP. 1993. Utilization of synthetic carotenoids by the prawn Penaeus japonicus under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture. 110 (2), 151-159. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90269-5
  • Pasarin D, Rovinaru C. 2018. Sources of carotenoids and their uses as animal feed additives - a review. Anim Sci. 61(2), 74-85.
  • Pezeshk F, Babaei S, Kenari AA, Hedayati M, Naseri M. 2019. The effect of supplementing diets with extracts derived from three different species of macroalgae on growth, thermal stress resistance, antioxidant enzyme activities and skin colour of electric yellow cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus). Aquacult Nutr. 25 (2), 436-443. doi: 10.1111/anu.12869
  • Piccaglia R, Marotti M, Grandi S. 1998. Lutein and lutein ester content in different types of Tagetes patula and T. erecta. Ind Crops Prod. 8 (1), 45-51.
  • Santos-Bocanegra E, Ospina-Osorio X, Oviedo-Rondon EO. 2004. Evaluation of xanthophylls extracted from Tagetes erectus (marigold flower) and Capsicum sp. (red pepper paprika) as a pigment for egg yolks compare with synthetic pigments. Int J Poult Sci. 3(11), 685-689.
  • Schiedt K, Leuenberger FJ, Vecchi M, Glinz, E. 1985. Absorption, retention and metabolic transformation of carotenoids in rainbow trout, salmon and chicken. Pure Appl. Chem. 57, 685-692.
  • Schiedt K, Liaaen-Jensen S. 1995. Isolation and analysis. G.Britton, S. Liaaen-Jensen, H. Pfander (Eds.), Carotenoids, vol. 1A, Basel, Switzerland, 81 s.
  • Shimidzu N, Goto M, Miki W. 1996. Carotenoids as singlet oxygen quenchers in marine organisms. Fish Sci. 62, 134-137. doi: 10.2331/fishsci.62.134
  • Sivel M, Kracmar S, Fisera M, Klejdus B, Kuban V. 2014. Lutein content in marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.) concentrates used for production of food supplements. Czech J Food Sci. 32 (6), 521-525.
  • Storebakken T, Foss P, Schıedt K, Austreng E, Liaaen-Jensen S, Manz U. 1987. Carotenoids in diyet for salmonids: IV. Pigmentation of Atlantic salmon with astaxanthin, astaxanthin dipalmitate and canthaxanthin. Aquaculture. 65 (3-4), 279-292. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(87)90241-9
  • Şeker A. 2004. Kadife çiçeğinin (Tagetes erecta) japon balığının (Carassius auratus) Pigmentasyonu ve büyümesi üzerine etkisi [Yüksek lisans tezi]. Çukurova Üniversitesi. 40 s.
  • Torrissen OJ. 1984a. Pigmentation of salmonids: Effects of carotenoids in eggs and start-feeding diet on survival and growth rate. Aquaculture. 43, 185-193. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(84)90021-8
  • Torrissen OJ, Naevdal G. 1984. Pigmentation of salmonids-genetical variation in carotenoid deposition in rainbow trout. Aquaculture. 38, 59-66. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(84)90137-6
  • Torrissen OJ, Hardy RW, Shearer KD. 1989. Pigmentation of salmonids-carotenoid deposition and metabolism. Rev Aqua Sci. 1, 209-225.
  • White DA, Moody AJ, Serwata RD, Bowen J, Soutar C, Young AJ, Davies SJ. 2003. The degree of carotenoid esterification influences the absorption of astaxanthin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquacult Nutr. 9 (4), 247-251. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2095.2003.00250.x
  • Yanar M, Erçen Z, Hunt-Özlüer A, Büyükçapar HM. 2008. The use of alfalfa, Medicago sativa as a natural carotenoid source in diets of goldfish, Carassius auratus, Aquaculture. 284 (1-4), 196-200. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.050
  • Yeşilayer N, Mutlu G, Yıldırım A. 2020. Effect of nettle (Urtica spp.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) extracts and synthetic xanthophyll (zeaxanthin) carotenoid supplementations into diets on skin pigmentation andgrowth parameters of electric yellow cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus). Aquaculture. 520, 734964. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.734964
  • Yılmaz S, Ergün S. 2011. Effect of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) on pigmentation of Blue streak hap (Labidochromis caeruleus). Isr J Aquac Bamidgeh. 63, 633, 6.

The Use of Apo-ester and Marigold (Tagetes erecta) as Carotenoid Source in Pigmentation of Electric Yellow Cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus)

Year 2022, Volume: 8 Issue: 3, 289 - 296, 30.12.2022
https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.1018012

Abstract

This study was carried out to determine the effects on skin pigmentation and rearing parameters of electric yellow cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus) fed diets containing 4% marigold (Tagetes erecta), 0 and 100 mg/kg synthetic apo-ester for 60 days. Skin colour was measured by colorimetric method using reflectance spectroscopy. Effects of marigold and synthetic apo-ester on colour parameters (L*,a*,b*,Ch, H°ab) of fish were similar (P>0.05). Both carotenoid sources provided higher a yellowness (+b*) value in fish (P<0.05) but did not affect lightness (+L*) and redness (+a*) value, compared to diets without carotenoids (P>0.05). On the other hand, carotenoid sources had no effect on growth performance, feed utilization and survival rate of fish (P<0.05). This study demonstrated that marigold can be successfully used as an alternative natural carotenoid source to the synthetic apo-ester in electric yellow cichlid diets.

References

  • Abd El-Gawad EA, Wang HP, Yao H. 2019. Diet supplemented with synthetic carotenoids: Effects on growth performance and biochemical and immunological parameters of yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Front Physiol. 10: 1-13. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.01056
  • Alma A, del Villar-Martinez, J, Orbe-Rogel EC, Vanegas-Espinoza P, Quintero-Gutierrez AG, Lara-Flores M. 2013. The effect of marigold (Tagetes erecta) as natural carotenoid source for the pigmentation of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.). Res J Fish Hydrobiol. 8(2), 31-37.
  • Amar EC, Kirona V, Satoha S, Watanabea T. 2004. Enhancement of innate immunity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) associated with dietary intake of carotenoids from natural products. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 16, 527-537. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2003.09.004
  • Bell JG, McEvoy J, Tocher DR, Sargent JR. 2000. Depletion of α-tocopherol and astaxanthin in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) affects autoxidative defense and fatty acid metabolism. J Nutr. 130 (7), 1800-1808. doi: 10.1093/jn/130.7.1800.
  • Bjerkeng B, Johnsen G. 1995. Frozen storage of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as affected by oxygen, illumination, and fillet pigment. J Food Sci. 60 (2), 284-288. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1995.tb05656.x
  • Boonyaratpalin M, Unprasert N. 1989. Effects of pigment from different sources on colour and growth of red Oreochromis niloticus, Aquaculture, 79 (1-4), 375-380. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90479-1
  • Büyükçapar HM, Yanar M., Yanar Y. 2007. Pigmentation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Carotenoids from Marigold Flower (Tagetes erecta) and Red Pepper (Capsicum annum). Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 31(1), 7-12.
  • Chien YH, Jeng SC. 1992. Pigmentation of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicas, Bate, by various pigment sources and levels and feeding regimes. Aquaculture. 102: 333-346. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(92)90186-O
  • Christiansen R, Lee Ø, Torrissen OJ. 1994. Effect of astaxanthin and vitamin A on growth and survival during first feeding of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquac Res. 25 (9), 903-914. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.1994.tb01352.x
  • Christiansen R, Torrissen OJ. 1996. Growth and survival of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. fed different dietary levels of astaxanthin. Juveniles. Aquacult Nutr. 2 (1), 55-62. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2095.1996.tb00008.x
  • Choubert G, Storebakken T. 1989. Dose response to astaxanthin and canthaxanthin pigmentation of rainbow trout fed various dietary carotenoid concentration. Aquaculture. 81 (1), 69-77. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(89)90231-7
  • Goodwin, TW. 1984. The Biochemistry of Carotenoids (2nd ed.), Chapman & Hall, London, s. 64-96.
  • Goswami UC. 1993. Metabolism of carotenoids in freshwater fish: (i) Biogenesis of 3-4 dehydroretinol (ii) supplementation of carotenoids with fish food for better survival and growth. 10th International Symposium of Carotenoids, Trondheim.
  • Guillou A, Choubert G, De La Noüe J. 1992. Absorption and blood clearance of labelled carotenoids ([14C] astaxanthin, [3H] cantaxanthin) and [3H] zeaxanthin) in mature female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Comp Biochem Physiol. A: physiology. 103 (2), 301-306. doi: 10.1016/0300-9629(92)90584-D
  • Göçer M, Yanar M, Kumlu M, Yanar Y. 2006. The effects of red pepper, marigold flower, and synthetic astaxanthin on pigmentation, growth, and proximate composition of Penaeus semisulcatus. Turk J Vet Anim Sci. 30, 359-365.
  • Hata M, Hata M. 1973. Studies on astaxanthin formation in some fresh-water fishes, Tohoku j Agric Res. 24(4), 192-196.
  • Hunt, R. W. 1977. The specification of colour appearance. I. Concepts and terms. Color Research & Application, 2(2), 55-68. doi: 10.1002/col.5080020202
  • Jagadeesh TD, Murthy HS, Swain SH, Chethan N, Manjunatha AR, Baglodi V. 2014. Effect of marigold oleoresin on growth, survival and pigmentation in orange chromide, Etroplus maculatus (Bloch, 1795). Fish Technol. 51, 25-30.
  • Jagadeesh TD, Murthy HS, Surendranath SV, Panikkar P, Manjappa N, Mahesh V. 2015. Effects of supplementation of marigold (Tagetes erecta) oleoresin on growth, survival and pigmentation of rosy barb, Puntius conchonius (Hamilton). The bioscan, 10 (3), 1431-1435.
  • Jha G.N, Sarma D, Qureshi TA. 2012. Effect of spirulina (Spirulina platensis) and marigold (Tagetes erecta) fortified diets on growth, body composition and total carotenoid content of Barilius bendelisis. Indian J Anim Sci. 82 (3), 336–340.
  • Liu F, Qu YK, Wang AM, Yu YB, Yang WP, Lv F, Nie Q. 2019. Effects of carotenoids on the growth performance, biochemical parameters, immune responses and disease resistance of yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) under high-temperature stress, Aquaculture. 503, 293-303. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.01.008
  • Maleknejad R, Sudagar M, Mazandarani M, Hosseini SA. 2014. Effect of different live foods source (Culex larvae, Chironomus larvae and artemia) on pigmentation of electric yellow fish (Labidochromis Caeruleus), Int J Adv Biol Biom Res, 2 (4), 1287-1295.
  • Nakano T, Tosa M, Takeuchi M, 1995. Improvement of biochemical features in fish health by red yeast and synthetic astaxanthin. J.Agric. Food Chem. 43, 1570-1573.
  • Nakano T, Kanmuri T, Sato M, Takeuchi M, 1999. Effect of astaxanthin rich red yeast (Phaffia rhodozyma) on oxidative stress in rainbow trout. Biochim Biophy Acta. 1426 (1), 119-125. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4165(98)00145-7
  • Negre-Sandargues G, Castillo R, Petit H, Sancé S, Martines RG, Milicua, JCG, Choubert G, Trilles, JP. 1993. Utilization of synthetic carotenoids by the prawn Penaeus japonicus under laboratory conditions. Aquaculture. 110 (2), 151-159. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(93)90269-5
  • Pasarin D, Rovinaru C. 2018. Sources of carotenoids and their uses as animal feed additives - a review. Anim Sci. 61(2), 74-85.
  • Pezeshk F, Babaei S, Kenari AA, Hedayati M, Naseri M. 2019. The effect of supplementing diets with extracts derived from three different species of macroalgae on growth, thermal stress resistance, antioxidant enzyme activities and skin colour of electric yellow cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus). Aquacult Nutr. 25 (2), 436-443. doi: 10.1111/anu.12869
  • Piccaglia R, Marotti M, Grandi S. 1998. Lutein and lutein ester content in different types of Tagetes patula and T. erecta. Ind Crops Prod. 8 (1), 45-51.
  • Santos-Bocanegra E, Ospina-Osorio X, Oviedo-Rondon EO. 2004. Evaluation of xanthophylls extracted from Tagetes erectus (marigold flower) and Capsicum sp. (red pepper paprika) as a pigment for egg yolks compare with synthetic pigments. Int J Poult Sci. 3(11), 685-689.
  • Schiedt K, Leuenberger FJ, Vecchi M, Glinz, E. 1985. Absorption, retention and metabolic transformation of carotenoids in rainbow trout, salmon and chicken. Pure Appl. Chem. 57, 685-692.
  • Schiedt K, Liaaen-Jensen S. 1995. Isolation and analysis. G.Britton, S. Liaaen-Jensen, H. Pfander (Eds.), Carotenoids, vol. 1A, Basel, Switzerland, 81 s.
  • Shimidzu N, Goto M, Miki W. 1996. Carotenoids as singlet oxygen quenchers in marine organisms. Fish Sci. 62, 134-137. doi: 10.2331/fishsci.62.134
  • Sivel M, Kracmar S, Fisera M, Klejdus B, Kuban V. 2014. Lutein content in marigold flower (Tagetes erecta L.) concentrates used for production of food supplements. Czech J Food Sci. 32 (6), 521-525.
  • Storebakken T, Foss P, Schıedt K, Austreng E, Liaaen-Jensen S, Manz U. 1987. Carotenoids in diyet for salmonids: IV. Pigmentation of Atlantic salmon with astaxanthin, astaxanthin dipalmitate and canthaxanthin. Aquaculture. 65 (3-4), 279-292. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(87)90241-9
  • Şeker A. 2004. Kadife çiçeğinin (Tagetes erecta) japon balığının (Carassius auratus) Pigmentasyonu ve büyümesi üzerine etkisi [Yüksek lisans tezi]. Çukurova Üniversitesi. 40 s.
  • Torrissen OJ. 1984a. Pigmentation of salmonids: Effects of carotenoids in eggs and start-feeding diet on survival and growth rate. Aquaculture. 43, 185-193. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(84)90021-8
  • Torrissen OJ, Naevdal G. 1984. Pigmentation of salmonids-genetical variation in carotenoid deposition in rainbow trout. Aquaculture. 38, 59-66. doi: 10.1016/0044-8486(84)90137-6
  • Torrissen OJ, Hardy RW, Shearer KD. 1989. Pigmentation of salmonids-carotenoid deposition and metabolism. Rev Aqua Sci. 1, 209-225.
  • White DA, Moody AJ, Serwata RD, Bowen J, Soutar C, Young AJ, Davies SJ. 2003. The degree of carotenoid esterification influences the absorption of astaxanthin in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquacult Nutr. 9 (4), 247-251. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2095.2003.00250.x
  • Yanar M, Erçen Z, Hunt-Özlüer A, Büyükçapar HM. 2008. The use of alfalfa, Medicago sativa as a natural carotenoid source in diets of goldfish, Carassius auratus, Aquaculture. 284 (1-4), 196-200. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.07.050
  • Yeşilayer N, Mutlu G, Yıldırım A. 2020. Effect of nettle (Urtica spp.), marigold (Tagetes erecta), alfalfa (Medicago sativa) extracts and synthetic xanthophyll (zeaxanthin) carotenoid supplementations into diets on skin pigmentation andgrowth parameters of electric yellow cichlid (Labidochromis caeruleus). Aquaculture. 520, 734964. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.734964
  • Yılmaz S, Ergün S. 2011. Effect of red pepper (Capsicum annuum) on pigmentation of Blue streak hap (Labidochromis caeruleus). Isr J Aquac Bamidgeh. 63, 633, 6.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Mahmut YANAR 0000-0002-4445-0228

Damla TERZİ 0000-0002-4072-6215

Ece EVLİYAOĞLU 0000-0003-3578-7336

Project Number FYL-2021-13450’nolu proje
Publication Date December 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022Volume: 8 Issue: 3

Cite

APA YANAR, M., TERZİ, D., & EVLİYAOĞLU, E. (2022). Sentetik Apo-ester ve Kadife Çiçeğinin (Tagetes erecta) Sarı Prenses Balığının (Labidochromis caeruleus) Pigmentasyonunda Karotenoyit Kaynağı Olarak Kullanılması. Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, 8(3), 289-296. https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.1018012