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Histopathological Effects of Different Concentrations of Copper Sulfate (CuSO4. 5H2O) on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 18 - 27, 25.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.777287

Abstract

In this study, histopathological effects in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of different concentrations of copper sulphate (CuSO4.5H2O) on gill, liver and muscle tissue was investigated. The experiment as 0.5 mg/L (24h), 3 mg/L (18 h), 500 mg/L (1-2 min) of copper sulphate concentrations groups and the control group were conducted. In the bioassay, 40 fish with an average weight of 150 g were used. 5 fish from each experimental group were used for histopathological findings. The tissues were fixed 10% formalin solution for 24 h. Tissue samples were embedded with paraffin using histological protocols standard. Sections were cut at 5 μm thickness, mounted onto glass slides, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Stained sections were examined by light microscopy. As a result sinusoidal cavities, congestion in vena, vacuolar and parenchymal degeneration, vascular damage and degeneration in hepatocytes were observed in the liver. Degeneration, necrosis (myophagia), inflammatory cellular infiltration were observed in muscle tissues. Degeneration in gill lamellas, pilar and epithelial cells, lymphoid and mononuclear cell infiltration in interlamellar areas, necrosis in epithelial cells. In this study, it was determined that 3 mg/L copper sulphate concentration is very harmful for fish. Because, high concentrations of copper sulphate adversely affected the gills and tissues of fish, especially. 500 mg/L can be preferred for short-term use and 0.5 mg/L for long-term use. In this study, it was concluded that copper sulfate should be used consciously and in need in aquaculture.

References

  • Al-Bairuty GA, Boyle D, Henry TB, Handy RD. 2016. Sublethal effects of copper sulphate compared to copper nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at low pH: physiology and metal accumulation. Aquatic Toxicology, 174, 188-198. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.02.006
  • Aoki T. 1992. Chemotherapy and drug resistance in fish farm in Japan, In: Shariff,M., Subasighe R.P., Arthur J.R., Eds. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Vol:1, Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, 413-426.
  • Arda M, Seçer S, Sarrıeyyüpoğlu M. 2002. Balık hastalıkları. Ankara: Medisan Yayınları 142 s.
  • Atabati A, Keykhosravi A, Askari-Hesni M, Vatandoost J, Motamedi M. 2015. Effects of copper sulfate on gill histopathology of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 2, 35-42. doi: 10.22034/IJI.V2I1.13
  • Barton BA, Iwama GK. 1991. Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effeets of corticosteroids. Annual Reviews of Fish Diseases 1, 26.
  • Björklund H, Bondestam J, Bylund G. 1991. Residues of oxytetracycline in wild fish and sediments from fish farms, Aquaculture, 86, 359-367.
  • Boyd CE. 1982. Water quality management for pond fish culture. Elsiver Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, 318.
  • Boyle D, Clark NJ, Handy RD 2020. Toxicities of copper oxide nanomaterial and copper sulphate in early life stage zebrafish: Effects of pH and intermittent pulse exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 190, 109985. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109985
  • Bulut C, Çetinkaya O, Kubilay A. 2014. Bakırın (Cu+2) Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) Üzerine Akut Toksisitesi. Yunus Araştırma Bülteni, (1), 31-39. doi: 10.17693/yunus.04465
  • Bulut C, Kubilay A, Bektaş ZH, Birden B. 2015. Histopathological effects of formaldehyde (CH2O) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, 1(1), 43-48. doi: 17216/limnofish.205732
  • Chen JC, Lin CH. 2001. Toxicity of copper sulfate for survival, growth, molting and feeding of juveniles of the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 192, 55-65. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00442-7
  • Cicik B. 2003. Bakır-çinko etkileşiminin sazan (Cyprinus carpio)’nın karaciğer, solungaç ve kas dokularındaki metal birikimi üzerine etkileri. Ekoloji Çevre Dergisi, 12(48), 32-36.
  • Dash SC. 1989. Copper sulphate poisoning and acute renal failure. The International Journal of Artificial Organs, 12, 610.
  • Demir Y, Oruç E, Topal A. 2016. Carbonic anhydrase activity responses and histopathological changes in gill and liver tissues after acute exposure to chromium in brown trout juveniles. Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry, 44, 515–523. doi: 10.15671/HJBC.2016.132
  • Doyuk SA, Çolakoğlu FA. 2004. Kirleticilerin Su Ürünlerine Etkileri. Tarımsal Çevre ve Su Kirliliği Seminer Kitabı, Ankara.
  • Dursun S. 1997. Hastalıklar Bilgisi Ders Kitabı, İstanbul.
  • Handy RD, Sims DW, Giles A, Campbell HA, Musonda MM, 1999. Metabolic Trade-Off Between Locomotion and Detoxification for Maintenance of Blood Chemistry and Growth Parameters by Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) During Chronic Dietary Exposure to Copper, Aquatic Toxicology, 47, 23-41.
  • Kirk RS, Lewis JW. 1993. An evaluation of pollutant induced changes in the gills of rainbow trout using scanning electron microscopy. Environmental Technology, 14, 577-585.
  • Kırıcı M, Turk C, Çağlayan C, Kırıcı M. 2017. Toxic effects of copper sulphate pentahydrate on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of freshwater fish Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843) tissues. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(3), 1685-1696. doi: 10.15666/aeer/1503_16851696
  • Karan V, Vitorovic S, Tutundzic V, Poleksic V. 1998. Functional Enzymes Activity and Gill Histology of Carp after Copper Sulfate Exposure and Recovery. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 40, 49-55.
  • Lauren DJ, McDonald DG. 1986. Influence of water hardness, pH and alkalinity on the mechanisms of copper toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 43, 1488-1496.
  • Lasiene K, Straukas D, Vitkus A, Juodziukyniene N. 2016. The influence of copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) on the embryo development in the guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Italian Journal of Animal Science, 15, 529-535 doi: 10.1080/1828051X.2016.1209990
  • Luna LG. 1968. Manual of histologic staining methods of the armed forces institute of pathology. 3th Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
  • Örün H. 2004. Su kirliliğinin balıklar üzerindeki etkileri ve teşhislerinde kullanılan bazı biyobelirteçler. Tarımsal Çevre ve Su Kirliliği Seminer Notları, Malatya Seminer Kitabı, Ankara, 7-13.
  • Öğüt H. 2005. Balıklarda Stres. Balık Biyolojisi Araştırma Yöntemleri Kitabı. Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık, Editör: Karakaş., M., 13, 377-394.
  • Öztürk S, Avcı H. 2017. Gökkuşağı alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) bakır sülfat pentahidrat ile oluşturulan akut ve kronik bakır toksikasyonunda patolojik incelemeler. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 33(2) 97-106. doi: 10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.2017.143
  • Pickering AD. 1993. Growth and stress in fish production. Aquaculture, 11, 51-63.
  • Playle RA. 1997. Physiological and toxicological effects of metals at gills of freshwater fish. ed. Bergmann
  • H. L. and Dorward-King E. J., Reassessment of metals criteria for aquatic life protection, Florida, 2, 101-105.
  • Sağlam N, Ural, M, 2003. Değişik yoğunluktaki bakır sülfat (CuSO4) solüsyonunda bırakılan gökkuşağı alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss) makroskobik ve mikroskobik incelemeler. Elazığ Fırat Üniversitesi Fen ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 15(1), 89-97.
  • Saucier D, Astic L, Rioux P, Godinot F. 1991. Histopathological changes in the olfactory organ of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 2239-2245.
  • Shaw BJ, Al-Bairuty GA Handy RD. 2012. Effects of waterborne copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss): physiology and accumulation. Aquatic Toxicology, 116-117, 90-101. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.02.032
  • Svobodova Z, Vykusova B. Machova J. 1994. The Effects of Pollutants on Selected Haematological and Biochemical Parameters in Fish, eds. R Muller and R. Lloyd, FAO, Blackwell, 39-52.
  • Siemering G, David, N, Hay Worth J. Franz A. 2005. Aquatic Pesticides Monitoring Program Literature Review. San Francisco Estuary Institute, California, 10-20, 35-45.
  • Soucek DJ, Noblet GP. 1998. Copper Toxicity to the Endoparasitic Trematode (Posthodiplostomum minimum) Relative to Physid Snail and Bluegill Sunfish Intermediate Hosts. Environmental Toxicology Chemisrty, 17(12): 2512-2516.
  • Stagg RM, Shuttleworth TJ. 1982. The accumulation of copper in Platichthys flesus L. and its effects on plasma electrolyte concentrations. Journal Fish Biology, 20, 491-500.
  • Steinebach OM, Wolterbeek H. 1994. Role of cytosolic copper, metallothionein and glutathione in copper toxicity in rat hepatoma tissue culture cells. Toxicology, 92, 75-90.
  • Uslu O, Türkman A. 1987. Su Kirliliği ve Kontrolü. T.C. Başbakanlık Çevre Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Ankara.
  • US EPA. 1987. Drinking Water Criteria Document for Copper, Prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH, for the Office of Drinking Water, Washington, 54381-54383.
  • Timur G, Timur M. 2003. Balık Hastalıkları, İstanbul Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dilek Ofset, Yayın No:5, 538, İstanbul.
  • Trivedi MH, Sangai NP, Renuka A. 2012. Assessment of toxicity of copper sulphate pentahydrate on oxidative stress ındicators on liver of gold fish (Carassius auratus). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 1, 52-57.
  • Tort L, Torres P. 1988. The effects of sublethal concentrations of cadmium on hematological parameters in the dog fish. Fish Biology, 32, 277-282.
  • Yıldız M, Gürkan O, Turgut C. 2005. Tarımsal Savaşımda Kullanılan Pestisitlerin Yol Açtığı Çevre Sorunları. TMMOB Ziraat Mühendisleri 6. Teknik Kongresi, Ankara, 1-22.
  • Yıldız HY. 2006. Plasma lysozyme levels and secondary stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to Leteux-Meyer Mixture. Turk Journal Veterinary Animal Sciences, 30, 265-269.
  • Wedemeyer GA, Barton BA, McLeay DJ. 1990. Stress and acclimation. Schreck, C. Moyle, P.(Ed) Methods for fish biology. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, 451-489, Maryland.
  • Wilson RW, Taylor, EW. 1993. The physiological responses of freshwater rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during acutely lethal copper exposure. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 163, 38-47.
  • WHO. 1984. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, Vol.1-2.
  • Wood CM. 1992. Flux measurements as indices of H+ and metal effects on freshwater fish. Aquatic Toxicology, 22, 239-264.

Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri

Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1, 18 - 27, 25.04.2022
https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.777287

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, bakır sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) farklı konsantrasyonlarının gökkuşağı alabalıklarının (Oncorhynchus mykiss) solungaç, karaciğer ve kas dokusu üzerindeki histolojik etkisi araştırılmıştır. Çalışmada kontrol grubu, 0.5 mg/L (24 saat), 3 mg/L (18 saat), 500 mg/L (1-2 dakika) bakır sülfat konsantrasyon grupları uygulanmıştır. Biyodeneyde ortalama ağırlığı 150 g olan 40 adet balık kullanılmıştır. Histopatolojik bulgular içinde her deney grubundan 5 balık kullanılmıştır. Dokular 24 saat boyunca % 10 formalin çözeltisi ile sabitlenmiştir. Doku örnekleri, histolojik protokol standardı kullanılarak parafine gömülmüş, kesitler 5 µm kalınlıkta kesilmiş, cam slaytlar üzerine monte edilmiş, hematoksilin ve eozin (H&E) ile boyanmış ve boyanan bölümler ışık mikroskobu altında incelenmiştir. Karaciğerde sinuzoidal boşluklar, venalarda konjesyon, vakuoler ve parankim dejenerasyon, damarlarda hasar ve hepatositlerde dejenerasyon görülmüştür. Kas dokularında dejenerasyon, nekroz (miyofaji), inflamatuar selüler infiltrasyon görülmüş, solungaç lamellalarında, pilar ve epitel hücrelerde dejenerasyon, interlamellar alanlarda lenfoid ve mononükleer hücre infiltrasyonu, epitelyum hücrelerde nekroz gözlenmiştir. Çalışmada, 3 mg/L bakır sülfat konsantrasyonunun balıklar için çok zararlı olduğu belirlenmiştir. Zira yüksek konsantrasyonlarda bakır sülfatın özellikle balıkların solungaç ve dokularını olumsuz yönde etkilediği belirlenmiştir. Kısa süreli kullanımlarda 500 mg/L ve uzun süreli banyoda ise 0,5 mg/L tercih edilebilir. Çalışmada, bakır sülfatın su ürünleri yetiştiriciliğinde bilinçli ve ihtiyaç dâhilinde kullanılması gerektiği sonucuna varılmıştır.

References

  • Al-Bairuty GA, Boyle D, Henry TB, Handy RD. 2016. Sublethal effects of copper sulphate compared to copper nanoparticles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at low pH: physiology and metal accumulation. Aquatic Toxicology, 174, 188-198. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2016.02.006
  • Aoki T. 1992. Chemotherapy and drug resistance in fish farm in Japan, In: Shariff,M., Subasighe R.P., Arthur J.R., Eds. Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Vol:1, Fish Health Section, Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines, 413-426.
  • Arda M, Seçer S, Sarrıeyyüpoğlu M. 2002. Balık hastalıkları. Ankara: Medisan Yayınları 142 s.
  • Atabati A, Keykhosravi A, Askari-Hesni M, Vatandoost J, Motamedi M. 2015. Effects of copper sulfate on gill histopathology of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology, 2, 35-42. doi: 10.22034/IJI.V2I1.13
  • Barton BA, Iwama GK. 1991. Physiological changes in fish from stress in aquaculture with emphasis on the response and effeets of corticosteroids. Annual Reviews of Fish Diseases 1, 26.
  • Björklund H, Bondestam J, Bylund G. 1991. Residues of oxytetracycline in wild fish and sediments from fish farms, Aquaculture, 86, 359-367.
  • Boyd CE. 1982. Water quality management for pond fish culture. Elsiver Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, 318.
  • Boyle D, Clark NJ, Handy RD 2020. Toxicities of copper oxide nanomaterial and copper sulphate in early life stage zebrafish: Effects of pH and intermittent pulse exposure. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 190, 109985. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109985
  • Bulut C, Çetinkaya O, Kubilay A. 2014. Bakırın (Cu+2) Gökkuşağı Alabalığı (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1792) Üzerine Akut Toksisitesi. Yunus Araştırma Bülteni, (1), 31-39. doi: 10.17693/yunus.04465
  • Bulut C, Kubilay A, Bektaş ZH, Birden B. 2015. Histopathological effects of formaldehyde (CH2O) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, 1(1), 43-48. doi: 17216/limnofish.205732
  • Chen JC, Lin CH. 2001. Toxicity of copper sulfate for survival, growth, molting and feeding of juveniles of the tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Aquaculture, 192, 55-65. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(00)00442-7
  • Cicik B. 2003. Bakır-çinko etkileşiminin sazan (Cyprinus carpio)’nın karaciğer, solungaç ve kas dokularındaki metal birikimi üzerine etkileri. Ekoloji Çevre Dergisi, 12(48), 32-36.
  • Dash SC. 1989. Copper sulphate poisoning and acute renal failure. The International Journal of Artificial Organs, 12, 610.
  • Demir Y, Oruç E, Topal A. 2016. Carbonic anhydrase activity responses and histopathological changes in gill and liver tissues after acute exposure to chromium in brown trout juveniles. Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry, 44, 515–523. doi: 10.15671/HJBC.2016.132
  • Doyuk SA, Çolakoğlu FA. 2004. Kirleticilerin Su Ürünlerine Etkileri. Tarımsal Çevre ve Su Kirliliği Seminer Kitabı, Ankara.
  • Dursun S. 1997. Hastalıklar Bilgisi Ders Kitabı, İstanbul.
  • Handy RD, Sims DW, Giles A, Campbell HA, Musonda MM, 1999. Metabolic Trade-Off Between Locomotion and Detoxification for Maintenance of Blood Chemistry and Growth Parameters by Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) During Chronic Dietary Exposure to Copper, Aquatic Toxicology, 47, 23-41.
  • Kirk RS, Lewis JW. 1993. An evaluation of pollutant induced changes in the gills of rainbow trout using scanning electron microscopy. Environmental Technology, 14, 577-585.
  • Kırıcı M, Turk C, Çağlayan C, Kırıcı M. 2017. Toxic effects of copper sulphate pentahydrate on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of freshwater fish Capoeta umbla (Heckel, 1843) tissues. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(3), 1685-1696. doi: 10.15666/aeer/1503_16851696
  • Karan V, Vitorovic S, Tutundzic V, Poleksic V. 1998. Functional Enzymes Activity and Gill Histology of Carp after Copper Sulfate Exposure and Recovery. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 40, 49-55.
  • Lauren DJ, McDonald DG. 1986. Influence of water hardness, pH and alkalinity on the mechanisms of copper toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 43, 1488-1496.
  • Lasiene K, Straukas D, Vitkus A, Juodziukyniene N. 2016. The influence of copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) on the embryo development in the guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Italian Journal of Animal Science, 15, 529-535 doi: 10.1080/1828051X.2016.1209990
  • Luna LG. 1968. Manual of histologic staining methods of the armed forces institute of pathology. 3th Ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
  • Örün H. 2004. Su kirliliğinin balıklar üzerindeki etkileri ve teşhislerinde kullanılan bazı biyobelirteçler. Tarımsal Çevre ve Su Kirliliği Seminer Notları, Malatya Seminer Kitabı, Ankara, 7-13.
  • Öğüt H. 2005. Balıklarda Stres. Balık Biyolojisi Araştırma Yöntemleri Kitabı. Nobel Akademi Yayıncılık, Editör: Karakaş., M., 13, 377-394.
  • Öztürk S, Avcı H. 2017. Gökkuşağı alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum 1792) bakır sülfat pentahidrat ile oluşturulan akut ve kronik bakır toksikasyonunda patolojik incelemeler. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 33(2) 97-106. doi: 10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.2017.143
  • Pickering AD. 1993. Growth and stress in fish production. Aquaculture, 11, 51-63.
  • Playle RA. 1997. Physiological and toxicological effects of metals at gills of freshwater fish. ed. Bergmann
  • H. L. and Dorward-King E. J., Reassessment of metals criteria for aquatic life protection, Florida, 2, 101-105.
  • Sağlam N, Ural, M, 2003. Değişik yoğunluktaki bakır sülfat (CuSO4) solüsyonunda bırakılan gökkuşağı alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss) makroskobik ve mikroskobik incelemeler. Elazığ Fırat Üniversitesi Fen ve Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi, 15(1), 89-97.
  • Saucier D, Astic L, Rioux P, Godinot F. 1991. Histopathological changes in the olfactory organ of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 2239-2245.
  • Shaw BJ, Al-Bairuty GA Handy RD. 2012. Effects of waterborne copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss): physiology and accumulation. Aquatic Toxicology, 116-117, 90-101. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2012.02.032
  • Svobodova Z, Vykusova B. Machova J. 1994. The Effects of Pollutants on Selected Haematological and Biochemical Parameters in Fish, eds. R Muller and R. Lloyd, FAO, Blackwell, 39-52.
  • Siemering G, David, N, Hay Worth J. Franz A. 2005. Aquatic Pesticides Monitoring Program Literature Review. San Francisco Estuary Institute, California, 10-20, 35-45.
  • Soucek DJ, Noblet GP. 1998. Copper Toxicity to the Endoparasitic Trematode (Posthodiplostomum minimum) Relative to Physid Snail and Bluegill Sunfish Intermediate Hosts. Environmental Toxicology Chemisrty, 17(12): 2512-2516.
  • Stagg RM, Shuttleworth TJ. 1982. The accumulation of copper in Platichthys flesus L. and its effects on plasma electrolyte concentrations. Journal Fish Biology, 20, 491-500.
  • Steinebach OM, Wolterbeek H. 1994. Role of cytosolic copper, metallothionein and glutathione in copper toxicity in rat hepatoma tissue culture cells. Toxicology, 92, 75-90.
  • Uslu O, Türkman A. 1987. Su Kirliliği ve Kontrolü. T.C. Başbakanlık Çevre Genel Müdürlüğü Yayınları, Ankara.
  • US EPA. 1987. Drinking Water Criteria Document for Copper, Prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH, for the Office of Drinking Water, Washington, 54381-54383.
  • Timur G, Timur M. 2003. Balık Hastalıkları, İstanbul Üniversitesi Su Ürünleri Fakültesi Dilek Ofset, Yayın No:5, 538, İstanbul.
  • Trivedi MH, Sangai NP, Renuka A. 2012. Assessment of toxicity of copper sulphate pentahydrate on oxidative stress ındicators on liver of gold fish (Carassius auratus). Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 1, 52-57.
  • Tort L, Torres P. 1988. The effects of sublethal concentrations of cadmium on hematological parameters in the dog fish. Fish Biology, 32, 277-282.
  • Yıldız M, Gürkan O, Turgut C. 2005. Tarımsal Savaşımda Kullanılan Pestisitlerin Yol Açtığı Çevre Sorunları. TMMOB Ziraat Mühendisleri 6. Teknik Kongresi, Ankara, 1-22.
  • Yıldız HY. 2006. Plasma lysozyme levels and secondary stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to Leteux-Meyer Mixture. Turk Journal Veterinary Animal Sciences, 30, 265-269.
  • Wedemeyer GA, Barton BA, McLeay DJ. 1990. Stress and acclimation. Schreck, C. Moyle, P.(Ed) Methods for fish biology. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, 451-489, Maryland.
  • Wilson RW, Taylor, EW. 1993. The physiological responses of freshwater rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during acutely lethal copper exposure. Journal of Comparative Physiology B, 163, 38-47.
  • WHO. 1984. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Health Criteria and Other Supporting Information, Vol.1-2.
  • Wood CM. 1992. Flux measurements as indices of H+ and metal effects on freshwater fish. Aquatic Toxicology, 22, 239-264.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Science
Published Date April 2022
Journal Section Research Article
Authors

Cafer BULUT> (Primary Author)
ISPARTA EĞİRDİR SU ÜRÜNLERİ ARAŞTIRMA ENSTİTÜSÜ MÜDÜRLÜĞÜ
0000-0002-5525-170X
Türkiye


Ayşegül KUBİLAY>
Isparta Uygulamalı Bilimler Üniversitesi Eğirdir Su Ürünleri Fakültesi
0000-0003-2495-6202
Türkiye

Supporting Institution SDU-BAP
Project Number SDU-BAP-1823YL-09
Thanks Bu çalışma, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi (SDÜ) Bilimsel Araştırma Projeleri Birimi'nin SDU-BAP-1823YL-09 proje numarası ile desteklenerek “Bakır Sülfat (CuSO4.5H2O) ve Formaldehit (CH2O)’in Gökkuşağı Alabalıklarında (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Histopatolojik ve Hematolojik Etkilerinin Araştırılması” adlı yüksek lisans tezinden özetlenmiştir.
Publication Date April 25, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 8, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { limnofish777287, journal = {Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research}, eissn = {2149-4428}, address = {}, publisher = {Egirdir Fisheries Research Institute}, year = {2022}, volume = {8}, number = {1}, pages = {18 - 27}, doi = {10.17216/limnofish.777287}, title = {Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri}, key = {cite}, author = {Bulut, Cafer and Kubilay, Ayşegül} }
APA Bulut, C. & Kubilay, A. (2022). Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri . Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research , 8 (1) , 18-27 . DOI: 10.17216/limnofish.777287
MLA Bulut, C. , Kubilay, A. "Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri" . Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research 8 (2022 ): 18-27 <https://www.limnofish.org/en/pub/issue/69479/777287>
Chicago Bulut, C. , Kubilay, A. "Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri". Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research 8 (2022 ): 18-27
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Histopathological Effects of Different Concentrations of Copper Sulfate (CuSO4. 5H2O) on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) AU - CaferBulut, AyşegülKubilay Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.17216/limnofish.777287 DO - 10.17216/limnofish.777287 T2 - Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 18 EP - 27 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - -2149-4428 M3 - doi: 10.17216/limnofish.777287 UR - https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.777287 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri %A Cafer Bulut , Ayşegül Kubilay %T Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri %D 2022 %J Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research %P -2149-4428 %V 8 %N 1 %R doi: 10.17216/limnofish.777287 %U 10.17216/limnofish.777287
ISNAD Bulut, Cafer , Kubilay, Ayşegül . "Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri". Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research 8 / 1 (April 2022): 18-27 . https://doi.org/10.17216/limnofish.777287
AMA Bulut C. , Kubilay A. Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri. Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research. 2022; 8(1): 18-27.
Vancouver Bulut C. , Kubilay A. Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri. Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research. 2022; 8(1): 18-27.
IEEE C. Bulut and A. Kubilay , "Bakır Sülfatın (CuSO4.5H2O) Farklı Konsantrasyonlarının Gökkuşağı Alabalıkları (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Üzerine Histopatolojik Etkileri", Journal of Limnology and Freshwater Fisheries Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 18-27, Apr. 2022, doi:10.17216/limnofish.777287